Planticles

About a week ago all the teams in the class who were based on Rome united to together and joined forces to create the ultimate library of statistics and information. So our group was in charge of getting facts and information on nature!

To start off, this is a long list of plants known to the Romans.

    1. Acacia, Egyptian (Acacia*) [Acacia arabica]
    2. Acanthus* (Paederos*, Melamphyllum*) [Acanthus mollis*]
    3. Adonis
    4. Alexanders* (Olusatrum*, )
    5. Alfalfa (lucerne) [Medicago sativa]
    6. Almond* (Amygdala*)  [Prunus dulcis* ]
    7. All-bone*: (Holosteon*) [Plantago Belardi*]
    8. Aloe* (Tarum*) [Aloe vera*]
    9. Althaea* [Althaea officinalis]
    10. Amaranth (Immortales)(Amarantus*)
    11. Anemone
    12. Anise (Anesum*)[Pimpinella anisum L.]
    13. Anthyllis (barba-Jovis)
    14. Apiastrum
    15. Apple tree*: (Malus*) [Malus domestica*]
    16. Arar (Thyine-wood) [Tetraclinis articulata]
    17. Apricot
    18. Arrowhead*:  (Oistos* Sagitta*)  [Sagitta sagittifolia*]
    19. Ash
    20. Aspalathus (Camel’s thorn) [Alhaji camelorum Fisch.]
    21. Asparagus [Asparagus officinalis L]
    22. Asparagus, wild* (Mycanthus*) [perhaps Asparagus acutifolius*]
    23. Azalea, common (Aegolethron*) [Rhodendron ponticum]
    24. Azaroles
    25. Balm (Apiastrum*) [Melissa officinalis]
    26. Balsam, cultivated [Commiphora opobalsamum Engl.]
    27. Balsam tree*:  [Commiphora opobalsamum*]
    28. Baneberry*: (Actaea*) [Actaea spicata*]
    29. Bannana*, or plantain-tree:  (Pala*)  [Musa paradisiaca*]
    30. Banyan tree*: (Indian ficus*) [Ficus benghalensis*]
    31. Barbary nut*: (Sisyrinchion*) [Iris sisyrinchium*]
    32. Barley*: (Hordeum*) 
    33. Basil* (Ocimum*) [Ocimum basilicum*]
    34. Basil, field*: (Polycnemon*) [Zizyphora capitata*]
    35. Basil, wild*:  (Polycnemon*) [Calamintha clinopodium*]
    36. Bean: [Vicia faba L.]
    37. Beet: (Beta)* [Beta vulgaris L]
    38. Betony*: (Cestros, Vettonica*) [Betonica officinalis*]
    39. Birch (Betulla)* [Betula alba]*
    40. Blackberry*: (Rubus*) [Rubus fruticosus*]
    41. Blackthorn*: (Prunus*) [Prunus spinosa*]
    42. Blite
    43. Box
    44. Bracken*: (Thelypteris*) [Pteris aquilina*]
    45. Brussels sprout
    46. Bryony: (Vitis)
    47. Buckthorn*: (Pyxacanthus chironius*) [Rhamnus lyiciioides*]
    48. Burweed*: (Sparganion*) [Sparganium sp.]
    49. Butcher’s Broom*: (Ruscum*) [Ruscus aculeatus*]
    50. Cabbage*: (Crambe*) [Brassica oleracea*]
    51. Calamint [Calamintha incana Boiss.]
    52. Camphire (Henna-flower) [Lawsonia inermis]
    53. Caper (Capparis or cappari)* [Capparis spinosa]*
    54. Cardoon [Cynara cardunculus L.]
    55. ~*Carob*~ (Ceronia, Ceratia*) [Ceratonia siliqua
    56. Caraway (cult.) (Careum)* [Carum carui L.] [Carum carvi]*
    57. Carpesium (Pontic or Cretan nard) [Valeriana dioscoridis Sibth.]
    58. Carrot (Pastinaca*)
    59. Cassia, poet’s*  (Osyris*)  [Osyris alba*]
    60. Castor-oil tree* (Cici*, Sili*) [Ricinus communis*]
    61. Catmint (amer. Catnip) [Nepeta cataria L>]
    62. cedar
    63. celery (cult.) [Apium graveolensL.]
    64. celery, wild*: (Heleoselinum*) [Apium graveolens*]
    65. Centaury, great*:  (Pharnaceon*) [Centaurea centaurium*]
    66. Chamomile [Anthemis nobilis L.]
    67. Chamomile, wild: (Anthemis*) [Matricaria chamomilla, Anthemis chia]
    68. Cerintha
    69. Chamaeleon, black*: (Ulophonon*) [Cardopatium corymbosum*]
    70. Chaste-tree*:  (Vitex*) [Vitex angus castus*]
    71. Cherry (Cerasus*)
    72. Chervil, cult.:  (Caerefolium*, Paederos*) [Anthriscus cerefolium]
    73. Chervil, wild*:  (Scandix*)  [Scandix pecten-veneris*]
    74. Chestnut (Balanitis)* [Castanea vesca]*
    75. Chibol (Fr. ciboule) [Allium fistulosum L.]
    76. Chickpea:  (Cicer*)[Cicer arietinum]*
    77. Chicory (Chichorium*) [Cichorium intybus or divaricatum]
    78. Chicory, wild*: (Seris*) [Cichorium intybus*]
    79. Chives [Allium schoenoprasum L.]
    80. Christ’s thorn*:  (Paliurus*)
    81. Chrysanthemum (parthenium)
    82. Cicely [Myrrhis odorata Scop.]
    83. Cinquefoil*: (Quinquefolium*)  [Potentilla reptans*, Tormentilla reptans*, Potentilla rupestris*, Delphinium staphisagria*]
    84. Cistus (Rock-rose) [Cistus Ladaniferus L.]
    85. Citron (Citrus, Malus Assyria*)* [Citrus medica]*
    86. Clary*: (Horminum*) [Salvia horminum*]
    87. Clubmoss, fir*:  (Selago*)  [Lycopodium selago*]
    88. Club-rush*: (Holoschoenus*) [Scirpus holoschoenus*]
    89. Colt’s foot*: (Tussilago*) [Tussilago farfara*]
    90. Comfrey*: (Halus*, Symphytum*) [Symphytum officinale*]
    91. Convolvulus
    92. Coriander [Coriandrum sativum L.]
    93. Coriander, Roman*: (Melanthion*) [Nigella saliva*]
    94. Cornel*: (Virga sanguinea*) [Cornus saguinea*]
    95. Corn-flag*: (Hyncinthus*, Gladiolus*,  Ziphion*) [Gladiolus segetum*]
    96. Cornflower, blue: (Cyanus)* [Centaurea cyanus]*
    97. Cotton: [Gossypium herbaceum and G. arboreum]
    98. crab-apple
    99. Cress, cult.: (Cardamum*, Nasturtium*)  [Lepidium sativum]*
    100. Crocus
    101. Cross-wort*: (Phyteuma*) [Reseda phyuteuma*]
    102. Cucumber* (Cusumis*
    103. Cumin: (Cuminum)* [Cuminum cyminum L.]
    104. Cumin, black (gith, fitches): [Nigella sativa L.]
    105. Cumin, wild [Lagoecia cuminoides]*
    106. Cunila
    107. Currant, black: (Cynosbatos)* [Ribes nigrum]*
    108. Cyclamen: (Cyclaminus)* [Cyclamen sp.]*
    109. Cynoglosum
    110. Cypress: (Cypressus)* [Cyperus sempervirens]*
    111. Cypress (Galingale) [Cyperus longus L.]
    112. Dame’s Violet*: (Hesperis*) [Hesperis matronalis*]
    113. Damson (plum): [Prunus insititia L.]
    114. Dill: (Anetum*)[Anethum graveolens L.]
    115. Dittany: (Dictamnum)* [Amaracus dictamnus]*
    116. Dock, sour*:  (Oxalis*) [Remex acetosa*]
    117. Double-tongue*: (Vicapervica*) [Ruscus hypophyllum*]
    118. Elder tree* : (Sabucus or sambucus*) [Sambucus nigra*]
    119. Elecampane*: (Chironium*, Inula*) [Inula helenium*]
    120. Elm*: (Ulmus*) [Ulmus sp.*)
    121. Endive, cultivated*: (Seris*) [Cichorium endivia*]
    122. Fennel
    123. Fenugreek, cult.: (Aegoceras*, Telis*) [Trigonella foenum graecum]
    124. Fern
    125. Fire-thorn*: (Pyracantha*) [Cotoneaster pyracantha*]
    126. Flax*: (Linum*) [Linum usitatissimum*  and  Linum angustifolium*]
    127. Fumitory*: (Isopyron*) [Fumaria capreolata*]
    128. Frankincense-tree*: (Tus*) [Boswellia Carteri*]
    129. Gallic nard*/Valerian (Nardus*)
    130. Garlic
    131. Gentian
    132. Germander*
    133. Ginger [Zingiber officinale]
    134. Gourd
    135. Grasswrack, Ligurian*: (Prason*) [Posidionia oceanica*]
    136. Groundpine/pine
    137. Hartwort, small*: (Syreon*, Seseli*) [Tordylium officinale*]
    138. Hazelnut (Abellana*) [Corylus avellana]
    139. Heliotrope
    140. Hemlock (Cicuta)* [Conium maculatum]*
    141. Hemp (Cannabis)* [Cannabis sativa]*
    142. Henbane*: (Hyoscyamus*) [Hoscyamus sp*]
    143. Henna (Cypros)* [Lawsonia inermis]*
    144. Hesperis (Dame’s violet)
    145. Holewort*: (Thesium*) [Corydalis densiflora*]
    146. Holly
    147. Honeysuckle*:
    148. Horehound, black*:  (Ballote)* [Ballota nigra]*
    149. Horehound, white*:  (Prasion*) [Marrubium vulgare*]
    150. Horn-beam*: (Carpinus*, Zygia*) [Carpinus betulus*]
    151. Hornbeam, hop  (Ostrys or ostrya*) [Ostrya carpinifolia*]
    152. Horse-fennel*: (Hippomarathum*) [Prangos ferulacea*]
    153. Horse-sorrel*: (Hippolapathum*) [Rumex aquaticus*]
    154. Horsetail*: (Hippuris*) [Equisetum arvense or  maximum*]
    155. Houseleek*:  (Sedum*)
    156. Hyacinth
    157. Hyssop*: (Hysopum*) [Hyssop officinalis*] [Origanum hirtum L.]
    158. Iris
    159. Ivy*  (Helix*, Hedera*, Orthocissos*) [Hedera helix*]
    160. Jujube, common*: (Zizyphus*) [Zizyphus vulgaris*]
    161. Juniper
    162. Kale (Helia*, Caulodes)* [Brassica oleracea acephala]*
    163. Larch*: (Larix*) [Larix communis*]
    164. Larkspur
    165. Laurel, bay: (Thasia*) [Laurus nobilis*]
    166. Laurustinus*: (Tinus*) [Viburnum tinus*]
    167. Lavender
    168. Lavender cotton (Chamaecyparissos)* [Santolina chamaecyparissus]
    169. Leek*: (Porrum*) [Allium porrum*] [Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum]
    170. Leek, wild (Ampeloprason)* [Allium ampeloprasum]*
    171. Lemon (malum medicum – the fruit or apple of the Medes) [Citrus limon B.]
    172. Lentils*: (Lens*) [Ervum lens*]
    173. Lentisk (Mastic) [Pistachia lentiscus L.]
    174. Lettuce*: (Lactuca*) [Lactuca sativa]
    175. Lichen, Fragrant [Usnaea barbata L.]
    176. Lily: (Crinon*) [Lilium sp.]
    177. Linden*: (Tilia*) [Tilia tomentosa*]
    178. Linseed
    179. Lotus, Indian (Cyamos)* [Nelumbo nucifera]*
    180. Lotus
    181. Lovage*: (Ligusticum*)[Levisticum officinale*] [Ligusticum levisticum L.]
    182. Lupin*: (Lupinus*) [especially Lupinus hirsutus, L. albus, and L. termis*]
    183. Lychnis
    184. Madder*: (Rubia*) [Rubia tinctorum*]
    185. Maidenhair (Adiatum)
    186. Mallow
    187. Mandragora
    188. Mango*: (Ficus*) [Mangifera indica*]
    189. Mangrove, White* (Arabian olea*) [Avicennia officinalis*]
    190. Maple
    191. Marjoram [Origanum majorana L.]
    192. Mastic tree*: (Lentiscus*) [Pistacia lentiscus*]
    193. Marum (?cat-thyme) [Teucrium marum L.]
    194. Medlar*: (Setania*) [Mespilus germanica*]
    195. Melilotus*: (Sertula campana*) [Trigonella graeca*]
    196. Melissophyllum (balm)
    197. Melon
    198. Millet, Italian*: (Panicum*)  [Setaria italica*]
    199. Mint
    200. Mistletoe*: (Viscum*) [Loranthus europaeus* and  Viscum album*]
    201. Moss, generic* (Muscus*)
    202. Moss, sphagnum* (Muscus*)
    203. Mulberry tree* (Morus*) [Morus nigra* and Morus alba*]
    204. Mullein*: (Verbascum*) 
    205. Mustard
    206. Myrtle-tree* (Myrtus) 
    207. Myrrh*: (Murra*) [Balsamedondron myrrha*]
    208. Nard, Celtic [Valeriana celtica L.]
    209. Nard, Mountain [Valeriana tuberosa L.]
    210. Nard, Wild [Asarum europaeum L.] or [Valeriana phu L.]
    211. Nard, Pontic [Valeriana dioscoridis Sibth.]
    212. Narcissus
    213. Nettle tree (Celthis*, Syrtica arbor*) [Celtis australis*]
    214. Nightshade*: (Strychnos*) [esp.  Solanum nigrum*]
    215. Oak*  (Quercus*)  [esp. Quercus robur*]
    216. Oats (Bromos)* [Avena sativa]*
    217. Olea of India* [Olea cuspidate*]
    218. Oleander* (Onothera*, Onothuris*, Rhododendron*, Rhododaphne*) 
    219. Olive* (Olea,* Olive-berry*) [Olea europaea*]
    220. Onion (Cepa*) [Allium Cepa*]
    221. Orache
    222. Orage
    223. Palm  (Palma*)
    224. Parsnip* : (Siser*) [Peucedanum sativum*]
    225. Parsley*:  (Petroselinum*) [Petroselinum sativum*]
    226. Partridge Plant
    227. Papyrus* (Papyrus*) [Cyperus papyrus*]
    228. Peach tree*:  (Persicus*) [Amygdalus persica*]
    229. Pea*: (Pisum*)  [Pisum sativum*]
    230. Pear tree*: (Pirus*)  [Pyrus communis*]
    231. Peony* (Paeonia*) [Paeonia sp.*]
    232. Pellitory* : (Muralis*, Perdicium*) [Parietaria officinalis*]
    233. Pellitory ‘of Spain’ / Spanish chamomile   [Anacyclus pyrethrum L.]
    234. Pellitory, wall*: (Urceolaris*) [Parietaria officinalis*]
    235. Pennyroyal (Blechon*, Puleium*)[Mentha pulegium L.]
    236. Pepper* (Piper*)
    237. Pepperwort*:(Iberis*) [Lebidium graminifolium*]
    238. Periwinkle* (Vicapervica*) [Vinca herbacea*]
    239. Pimpernel (Anagallis* and Corchorum*)
    240. Pine
    241. Pistachio*: (Pistacia*) [Pistacia vera]
    242. Plane tree
    243. Plane, oriental*: (Platanus*) [Platanus orientalis*]
    244. Plum tree*:  (Prunus*) [Prunus domestica*]
    245. Pomegranate* (Punica*) [Punica granatum*]
    246. Poplar* (Populus*) [Populus*]
    247. Poppy*: (Papaver*)
    248. Poppy, opium* (Nepenthes*) [Papaver somniferum *]
    249. Privet*: (Ligustrum*) [Ligustrum vulgare*]
    250. Purslain*:  (Porcillaca*)  [Portulaca oleracea*]
    251. Quince*: (Chrysomelum*, Musteum*,  Strutheum*) [Cydonia vulgaris*]
    252. Radish, cultivated*: (Raphanus*) [Raphanus sativus*]
    253. Rape [Brassica napus]
    254. Raspberry*: (Idaeus rubus*) [Rubus idaeus*]
    255. Rice*:  (Oryza*) [Oryza sativa]
    256. Rock-rose, Cretan*: (Leda*) [Cistus creticus*]
    257. Rocket [Eruca sativa Mill.]
    258. Rose
    259. Rosemary*:  (Rosmarinum*, libanotis/conyza) [Rosmarinus officinalis *]
    260. Rosemary frankincense [Lecokia cretica DC.]
    261. Rue*: (Ruta*)  [Ruta graveolens*]
    262. Rush, flowering*: (Sparganion*) [Butomus umbellatus*]
    263. Rye*: (Secale*) 

Saffron:  see Crocus, Saffron

  1. Safflower (Bastard Saffron):  (Cnecos)* [Carthamus tinctorius L.]
  2. Sage [Salvia officinalis L.]
  3. Saint John’s Wort*: (Hypericon*) 
  4. Salsify*: (Tragopogon*) 
  5. Salvia [Salvia triloba L.]
  6. Samphire (Rock-fennel): [Crithmum maritimum L.]
  7. Savory*: (Thymbra*) [Satureia hortensis*]
  8. Savory (wild): [Satureia thymbra L.]
  9. Seaweed
  10. Sebesten*: (Myxa*, Prunus Aegyptia*) [Cordia myxa*]
  11. Sedge*: (Ulva*) [Ulva conferva*]
  12. Sensitive plant*: (Aeschynomene*) [Mimosa asperata*]
  13. Service tree*: (Sorbus*)
  14. Sesame*: (sesima*, sesamon*) [Sesamum indicum *]
  15. Seseli (cult.) [Tordylium officinale L.]
  16. Shallot [Allium ascalonium L.]
  17. Silphium [Ferula tingitana L.]
  18. Smilax
  19. Snapdragon: (Antirrhinum*) [Antirrhinum orontium]
  20. Sorgham*: (Milium introduced from India*) [Sorghum vulgare ?*]
  21. Sorrel
  22. Sorrel, wood*: (Oxys*) [Oxalis acetosella*]
  23. Southernwood [Artemisia abrotanum L.]
  24. Spalax
  25. Spleenwort, maidenhair*: (Trichomanes*) [Asplenium trichomanes*]
  26. Spurge*: (Tithymalis*) [Euphorbia sp.*]
  27. Squill
  28. Star of Bethlehem (Bulbine, or bolbine*,  Ornithogala*) 
  29. Stock*
  30. Stone-parsley*: (Sinon*) [Sison amomum*]
  31. Strawberry*: (Fraga*) [Fragaria vesca*]
  32. Strawberry tree*: (Arbutus*, Unedo*) [Arbutus unedo]
  33. Styrax, official*: (Storas*(styrax*)) [Styrax officinalis]
  34. Sulfer-wort*: (Peucadanum*) [Peucedanum officinale*]
  35. Sumach [Rhus coriaria L.]
  36. Summer beet
  37. Sweet cicely*: (Myrris*) [Myrrhis adorata*]
  38. Sweet flag*: (Acoron*) [Acorus calamus*]
  39. Sweet rush
  40. Sycamore* (Egyptian morus*)[Ficus sycamorus*]
  41. Tamarisk*: (Tamarice*, Tamarix* ) [Tamarix articulata*]
  42. Tare*: (Vicia*) [Vicia sativa*]
  43. Terebinth*: (Terebinthus*) [Pistacia terebinthus*]
  44. Thapsia
  45. Thistle
  46. Thyme
  47. Thyne-wood tree*:  (Thya*) [Callitris quadrivalvis*]
  48. Tragacanth* (Tragacantha*) [especially Astragalus angustifolius*]
  49. Tree medick (Cytisus)* [Medicago arborea]*
  50. Truffle
  51. Tuber apple
  52. Turnip* (Rapa* -um*) [Brassica rapa* Brassica campestris]
  53. Turnip, French (Bunias)* [Brassica napus]*
  54. Valarian, Caucasian*: (Phu*) [ Valeriana phu*]
  55. Vervian*: (Peristereos*, Verbenaca*) [Verbena officinalis*]
  56. Vetch
  57. Vine
  58. Violet, sweet*: (Viola*) [Viola adorata*]
  59. Walflower*: (Phlox*) [Cheiranthus Cheiri*]
  60. Walnut (Basilicon*, Iuglans* (usualy nux iuglans*))* [Juglans regia]*
  61. Water Chestnut*:(Tribulus*) [Trapa natans*]
  62. Water Lily:
  63. Wheat
  64. Whortleberry*: (Vaccinium*) [Vaccinium myrtillus*]
  65. Willow* (Salix*) [Salix sp. ]
  66. Woad*: (Isatis*) [Isatis tinctoria*]
  67. Wormwood
  68. Yew-tree*: (Taxus*) [Taxus baccata*]

Source:“Plants Of Ancient Rome”. Lauracalluria.tripod.com. Web. 12 Feb. 2016.]

As you can see; this is a long list of plants. Our group could explore these in more depth and may be looks at the structure and design of some of these plants.

Uses for Roman plants:

“Wreaths as a door decoration, grave decoration, and bridal decorations as well as honor decorations were very popular with the Romans.”- Ancient Roman Plants – Forum Traiani ®”. Forum Traiani ®. N.p., 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2016.

It may not be much to offer to the group, it seems finding out about plants in Rome is harder than i thought. On the other hand we did gather plants and farming information off of Gianni which had information on parks.

 

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